TOPICS:Alexandriaancient wondersColossusGreat PyramidSeven wondersTemple of Artemiswondersyoushouldknow
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Credit: JR. Casals

Introduction

From the historical perspective, the các mục of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World comes lớn us from an incomplete manuscript known as the Seven Sights of the World (which incidentally only listed six monuments), possibly authored by Philo of Byzantium in circa 225 BC. The text mentioned the theamata (roughly ‘things lớn be seen‘ in Greek) of the world, which basically translated lớn the incredible sights of the time. Interestingly enough, there were other ancient writers who referenced or even made their own lists of ‘sights lớn see’, including Herodotus, Callimachus of Cyrene, Diodorus Siculus, & Antipater of Sidon.To that end, according to Herodotus, the Egyptian Labyrinth was worthy of inclusion as a wonder before the pyramids. Antipater, on the other hand, included the Walls of Babylon in place of the Lighthouse of Alexandria. However, in this article, we will only cover the ‘traditional’ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World – as mostly compiled by Philo. So without further ado, let us take a gander at the fascinating history & visual reconstructions (conveyed by images & animations) of these incredible man-made Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.


Contents

1) The Great Pyramid at Giza (circa 2560 BC)2) Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (circa 7th century BC)3) Hanging Gardens of Babylon (possibly circa 7th – 6th century BC)4) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (circa 435 BC)5) Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (circa 353 BC) 6) The Lighthouse of Alexandria (circa 280 BC)7) Colossus of Rhodes (circa 280 BC)
 

The Great Pyramid of Giza from Ancient Egypt has always demanded awe and recognition from us ‘mortals’, and rightly so. The incredible architectural specimen was built in around 2560 BC và held the record for the world’s tallest structure for a whopping 3,800 years with its then-impressive height of 481 ft (146.5 m). Generally believed lớn be constructed as a mortuary monument for Khufu (or Cheops in Greek), who was the second Pharaoh from the Fourth Dynasty, the gargantuan structure is not only the oldest but ironically also the only surviving monument from the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.As for its architectural history, the Great Pyramid was probably completed in 20 years, and as such was a part of Khufu’s necropolis complex that also consisted of large temples và smaller pyramids. Later on, the compound was expanded with the inclusion of the two other big pyramids of Khufu’s successors – Khafre and Menkaure; và the extended spatial scope is now known as the Giza pyramid complex (which had a huge wall enclosure that was known as the Wall of Crows).

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Credit: Jean-Philippe LaurentThe over result of such high levels of polishing yielded immaculately smooth surfaces that were incredibly shiny beyond reckoning. And, considering that there were limited pollution và smog circa 2500 BC (as opposed khổng lồ our contemporary times), the Great Pyramid of Giza must have been an otherworldly magnificent spectacle during the time of its completion – with ethereal, glass-like facades basking in the glory of the effulgent sun. Quite poetically và rather aptly, the Ancient Egyptians called the Great Pyramid of Giza by the name of ‘Ikhet‘, which simply translates khổng lồ ‘Glorious Light’.

2) Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (circa 7th century BC)

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Source: WilstarPossibly the second oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in terms of origin, the Temple of Artemis was initially established as a sanctuary during the Bronze Age, in what is now İzmir Province, Turkey. The sanctuary was destroyed by a flood (some time in 7th century BC) & its remnants were rebuilt into a massive temple by circa 550 BC, under the direction of the Cretan architect Chersiphron of Knossos và his son Metagenes (according to Strabo). This temple, however, was intentionally set lớn fire in an act of arson.
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Credit: Rocío Espín PiñarThe Ionic Temple of Artemis possibly survived until the 3rd century AD and was heavily damaged during the disastrous Gothic invasion. The roving Goths crossed Anatolia & were faced by only 7,000 Greek defenders under Roman rule at the famed narrow pass of Thermopylae (not to be confused with the earlier Battle of Thermopylae that pitted the Greeks against the Persians), though the outcome of this encounter is lost to the rigors of history. As for the Temple of Artemis, remarkably enough, it was once again rebuilt in the early 5th century but was ultimately destroyed by a band of Christians.

3) Hanging Gardens of Babylon (possibly circa 7th – 6th century BC)

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Credit: MondoWorksMyth, history, & magnificence – the Hanging Gardens of Babylon tread the fine line between all these avenues khổng lồ emerge as one of Herodotus’ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. & while the name itself evokes a reverie of a colossal construction with lush greenery complemented by the kaleidoscopic bevy of flowers and herbs, unfortunately, there is very little archaeological evidence to tư vấn the presumed massive scale of these ‘hanging’ gardens from ancient Mesopotamia.
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Credit: JR. CasalsNow from the historical angle, some of these legends were first described by Berossus (apparently in his book Babyloniaca), a Chaldaean priest who lived in the late 4th century BC. Subsequently, many ancient Greek authors also went on to lớn provide written descriptions of this ancient wonder; sometimes quoting Berossus’ work và at other times paraphrasing other ancient sources. For example, Diodorus Siculus (the author of the famed Bibliotheca historica) possibly consulted the 4th century BC texts of Ctesias of Cnidus, và then made this mô tả tìm kiếm in 1st century BC –There was also, beside the acropolis, the Hanging Garden, as it is called, which was built, not by Semiramis, but by a later Syrian king khổng lồ please one of his concubines; for she, they say, being a Persian by race và longing for the meadows of her mountains, asked the king to imitate, through the artifice of a planted garden, the distinctive landscape of Persia. The park extended four plethra on each side, và since the approach to lớn the garden sloped like a hillside & the several parts of the structure rose from one another tier on tier, the appearance of the whole resembled that of a theater. When the ascending terraces had been built, there had been constructed beneath them galleries which carried the entire weight of the planted garden & rose little by little one above the other along the approach; and the uppermost gallery, which was fifty cubits high, bore the highest surface of the park, which was made level with the circuit wall of the battlements of the city.Furthermore, the walls, which had been constructed at great expense, were twenty-two feet thick, while the passageway between each two walls was ten feet wide. The roof above these beams had first a layer of reeds laid in great quantities of bitumen, over this two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, & as a third layer of covering of lead, to the kết thúc that the moisture from the soil might not penetrate beneath. On all this again earth had been piled to lớn a depth sufficient for the roots of the largest trees; & the ground, when leveled off, was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great form size or other charms, could give pleasure khổng lồ the beholder. Và since the galleries, each projecting beyond another, all received the light, they contained many royal lodgings of every description; and there was one gallery which contained openings leading from the topmost surface và machines for supplying the gardens with water, the machines raising the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it being done. Now this park, as I have said, was a later construction.
 Keeping these constructional conjectures aside, archaeologists have actually come across a palatial complex inside Babylon that had its fair nội dung of vaults và wells. But the location of this seemingly monumental structure is not close to lớn the banks of the Euphrates, which rather contradicts the descriptions of ancient Greek authors.On the other hand, researchers have also discovered ruins of 82-ft wide wall overlays by the banks of the river, which alludes khổng lồ the possibility of a substantially large structure that was built during ancient times. Unfortunately, in any case, none of these ruins directly point to the actual existence of the incredible Hanging Gardens of Babylon – the most enigmatic of all the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

4) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (circa 435 BC)

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Source: OrangeSmileAwe-inspiring in its collective visual ‘power’, as opposed to lớn just the size, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, was a testament lớn the incredible sculptural prowess of the ancient Greeks. Built under the supervision of master sculptor & architect Phidias, the very same who previously oversaw the construction of the imposing statue of Athena inside the Parthenon, the seated Statue of Zeus was possibly finished by circa 435 BC, inside the massive temple perimeters at the sanctuary of Olympia.
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However, by circa 5th century AD, the temple fell into disuse – coinciding with the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire that overtook the Classical pagan religions. The fate of the statue at this time is not entirely known, although some sources suggest that it was taken lớn Constantinople. Unfortunately, the chryselephantine Zeus possibly didn’t survive the great fire at the Palace of Lausus in circa 475 AD.

5) Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (circa 353 BC)

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Source: WilstarThe Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (or Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ in Greek) was a grandiosely constructed tomb for Mausolus and his wife Artemisia II of Caria, between 353 and 350 BC, at what is now present-day Bodrum in Turkey. Mausolus, while himself being a native of Caria, was a satrap (governor) of the Persian Empire. He was also a great admirer of the Greek culture – so much so that the entire Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was designed by Greek architects Satyros & Pythius of Priene, while also boasting sculptural reliefs from other eminent ancient Greek artists.
To that end, the project was undertaken under the patronage of Mausolus’ heartbroken wife (and sister) Artemisia after the satrap’s death, thus in many ways mirrors the story of Shah Jahan và Taj Mahal – which incidentally is counted among the new seven wonders of the world. Reverting to lớn the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the soaring edifice was guarded by a stone enclosure and the entire complex sat atop a platform overlooking the city.

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 In essence, it was the magnificence of the finished structure (which rose to lớn over 148 ft) that prompted Antipater of Sidon to lớn designate it as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Unfortunately enough, this breathtaking architectural specimen was the last of the six destroyed ancient wonders which met its ravaged fate brought on by successive earthquakes from the 12th khổng lồ 15th centuries. & in an interesting etymological note, the very word ‘mausoleum’ is derived from this ancient wonder dedicated to lớn the Anatolian ruler Mausolus.

6) The Lighthouse of Alexandria (circa 280 BC)

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Screenshot of ancient Alexandria (reconstruction) from Assassins Creed: Origins by Ubisoft StudiosOne of the rare instances of Greek architecture that went beyond the human scale lớn ‘godly’ dimensions, the Lighthouse of Alexandria (also known as the Pharos of Alexandria) constructed by the Ptolemaic Kingdom (possibly by Ptolemy I Soter, circa 280 BC), may have been the tallest structure in the ancient world, with some accounts mentioning its height lớn soar up khổng lồ an incredible 492 ft. Unfortunately, since the building is not extant, we have to revert khổng lồ its lowest possible height in accordance with other literary sources – which was still impressive at 377 ft (or 115 m).
As Judith McKenzie, from Faculty of Oriental Studies in the University of Oxford, made it clear –The Arab descriptions of the lighthouse are remarkably consistent, although it was repaired several times especially after earthquake damage. The height they give varies only fifteen per cent from c 103 lớn 118 m <338 to 387 ft>, on a base c. 30 by 30 m <98 by 98 ft> square…the Arab authors indicate a tower with three tapering tiers, which they describe as square, octagonal & circular, with a substantial ramp.
 Now in terms of design, the Lighthouse of Alexandria built from light-hued stone blocks was vertically divided into three components – the lowermost (and broadest) square section with four huge facades, the thinner middle section with an octagonal plan, và the upper-most slimmest section with a circular plan. The functionality of the enormous structure was related to this upper level, with a mirror being installed atop it that reflected sunlight during the daytime, while a fire was lit during the night.
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7) Colossus of Rhodes (circa 280 BC)

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Source: GreekReporterThe Colossus of Rhodes was originally a massive statue of the Greek god Helios, erected possibly by the harbor of ancient Rhodes (on the island which bears the same name in our modern times). It probably rose to lớn a height of around 109 ft (or 70 cubits, 33 m) & was made by the local sculptor Chares of Lindos in circa 280 BC lớn commemorate the victory of Rhodes over forces of Cyprus that besieged the đô thị in 305 BC. Interestingly enough, contemporary sources talked about how much of the bronze và iron used for the colossal statue was actually repurposed from the abandoned siege tower & weapons left behind by the unsuccessful Cypriot army.
A poem from the Greek Anthology reads –O you, O Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching lớn Olympus, when they had pacified the waves of war & crowned their thành phố with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas but also on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom & independence. For khổng lồ the descendants of Herakles belongs dominion over sea and land.
On an unfortunate note, while the Colossus of Rhodes was counted among the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (in terms of construction), the statue only stood for a period of 54 years – thus becoming the first to lớn be destroyed. It was heavily damaged, along with various sections of the harbor, when the city was hit by an earthquake in 226 BC.And while the Ptolemaic ruler offered to rebuild the structure (since Rhodes was under the control of the Ptolemaic Kingdom), the native Rhodians declined since they perceived the calamity as a khung of divine punishment. There is also an anecdote (from The Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor – an Eastern Roman monk) about how the Arabs, on briefly taking control of Rhodes in 653 AD, dismantled the remnants of the brass statue & transported the sections on 900 camels, which were khổng lồ be made into coins.*Note – The article was updated on 17th April, 2020.Video Credits Pertaining lớn the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World:Great Pyramid at Giza – Danila LoginovHanging Gardens of Babylon – omixmax (Sourced from Lumion 3D)Mausoleum at Halicarnassus – xtheatroN (Sourced from Total War: Rome 2)Lighthouse of Alexandria – Ancient VineGIFS – Budget DirectAnd in case we have not attributed or misattributed any image, artwork or photograph, we apologize in advance. Please let us know via the ‘Contact Us’ link, provided both above the vị trí cao nhất bar & at the bottom bar of the page.
Architecture

Historians agree that the Great Pyramid was originally made khổng lồ shine lượt thích a ‘glassy star’ in the morning


Kudos lớn all those who created these wonderful videos. I felt lượt thích I had special powers to lớn observe and witness those amazing Wonders of the ancient world. I had never realized what the Hanging Gardens might actually have looked lượt thích until I saw the video clip depicting them. Remarkable! Thank you so much, all of you creative geniuses, who have brought to lớn life the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. You’ve given us a remarkable gift.
You are still able to walk through a couple of tunnels which are under the mausoleum. Scary but fun and it gives you a good sense of the enormous scale of the building.

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